A Brief History of Counselling A Brief History of Counselling To understand the history of counselling, we begin with the realisation that throughout the years, human beings have found comfort in sharing their problems or telling their story to others. As civilisation developed, religion offered a type of counselling, usually by priests who would listen and advise parishioners on their problems they still do.
The historical development of counselling Image of the content of this article The Psychoanalytic School of Thought The father of psychoanalysis was Sigmund Freudwho was firstly a neurologist interested in finding an effective treatment The historical development of counselling patients with neurotic or hysterical symptoms.
Patients under treatment with this new method remembered incidences of being sexually seduced in childhood, and Freud believed they had actually been abused only to later repress their memories. This, however, proved to be unworkable as it did not apply to all cases. In this work Freud discovered that dreams were symbolic and specific to the dreamer of dreams, he referred to them as the Royal road to the unconscious.
Meaning that analysis of the dreams could help uncover the content of the clients unconscious mind and give clues to unconscious conflicts. In Freud published his structural theory of the id ego and superego.
The Ego The ego acts according to the reality principle in other words it seeks to please the ids drive in a realistic way that will benefit in the long term rather than bringing grief.
The ego comprises that organised part of the personality structure which includes defence perceptual intellectual cognitive and executive functions, conscious awareness resides in the ego. Although not all of the operations of the ego or conscious the ego separates what is real.
It helps us to organise thoughts and make sense of them and the world around us in Freudian theory the ego mediates the id, the superego and the external world. Its task is to find a balance between primitive drives and reality while satisfying the id and superego. The Superego The superego aims for perfection it comprises that organise part of the personality structure is this is mainly unconscious sometimes it is called the conscience.
The superego works contradictory to the a the id. Freud also came up with the idea of psychosexual development a central element in his sex drive theory is that our libido unfolds in a series of stages each stage is characterised by their erogenous zone that is the source of the libidinal drive during that stage.
These stages are in order: In a nutshell Freud believed that if during any stage the child experienced anxiety in relation to one of these drives that they will become stuck at this stage and experience themes related to its as and neurosis.
Behaviourism Meanwhile a separate strand of psychological therapies were being developed under the influence of psychology and learning theory and leading thinkers such as a B. Skinner rejecting the notion of hidden aspects of the psyche which cannot be examined empirically began to focus on what could actually be observed in the outside world.
Some of the main influences of behaviourism came from Ivan Pavlov who investigated classical conditioning also Watson who is sought to restrict psychology to experimental methods and of course Skinner to conducted research on Operant conditioning.
Ivan Pavlov Ivan Pavlov developed classical conditioning, this is a form of associate of learning. The typical procedure for inducing classical conditioning involves presentations of neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance.
His most famous experiment involved paring a ringing of the bell with the presentation of food to dogs eventually the ringing of the bell became associated with getting food and elicited a saliva response in the dogs because they associated the ringing of the bell with food; this is what is considered a conditioned response.
Watson John Watson is best known as the founder of behaviourism in the USA which he defined as an experimental branch of natural science aimed at the prediction and control of behaviour.
Its model was based on Ivan Pavlovs studies of conditioned reflexevery conduct was seen as a response to a stimulus or to complex set of stimulus situations.
Watson thought from birth a few stimuli cause definite reactions but most behaviours were conditioned; the association of an unconditional stimuli to another stimuli. Little Albert was one of the famous experiments done by Watson. This brand of behaviourism demonstrated classical conditioning empirically through experimentation using the little Albert experiment in which a child is called Albert Wyles presented with a white rat to which was later paired with a loud noise as the trials progressed the child started to show signs of distress at the sight of the rat and other white objects demonstrating the conditioning are taking place little Albert was also was trained be frightened of furry objects like stuffed animals and even his mother is coat.
This kind of research is now considered unethical.
Skinner Burrhus Frederic Skinner — was an influential American psychologist, author, inventor, advocate for social reform, and poet. He invented the operant conditioning chamber, innovated his own philosophy of science called Radical Behaviorism,and founded his own school of experimental research psychology—the experimental analysis of behavior.
His analysis of human behavior culminated in his work Verbal Behavior, which has recently seen enormous increase in interest experimentally and in applied settings. Abraham Maslow Maslow became the leader of the humanist School of psychology that emerged in the s and s which he referred to as the third force beyond Freudian theory and behaviourism.
Maslow envisages human beings needs arranged like a ladder, the most basic needs where placed at the bottom such as food, sleep and water, physical things. Then came safety needs such as security and stability; then psychological or social needs for belonging ,for love, for acceptance and at the top of the ladder are the self actualising needs.
Maslow felt unfulfilled needs lower on the ladder would inhibit the person advancing to the next step. People who dealt in managing the higher needs were what he called self-actualizing people.
People who actualise can be identified by the following and other characteristics:The history of school counseling around the world varies greatly based on how different countries and local communities have chosen to School counseling began to shift from a focus exclusively on career development to a focus on student personal and social issues paralleling the rise of social justice and civil rights movements in the.
[email protected] University has created an interactive timeline showing the development of counseling as a profession. In recent years, counseling has b. 1. 1 Explain the historical development of Counselling Counselling and Psychotherapy began in the early 18th century.
The shift in how society dealt with mental health issues came about primarily due to the advent of the popularisation of science through the beginning of the industrial revolution.
Two organizations are considered key in the formation and development of counseling psychology: the Society of Counseling Psychology (SCP) of the APA and the Council of Counseling Psychology Training Programs (CCPTP), the organization for directors of training programs in counseling psychology.
Historical and Professional Foundations of Counseling PART I 3 Chapter 1 History of and Trends in Counseling Chapter 2 Personal and Professional Aspects is informed about the development and transformation of the profession is likely to have a.
Throughout the development of counseling and therapy, there has been an evolution of though about the way people are perceived and hence treated. In the days of the lunatic asylum, people were locked up and treated like animals.